What Invasion Meant for the Kurds

The Iraqi Kurds were supposed to be liberated by Saddam’s removal. Instead, they face corrupt regional parties and a hostile central state.

(Yasin Akgul / AFP via Getty Images)

Back in 1988, when Saddam Hussein still found considerable support among Western powers, his government launched a chemical-weapons attack on the Kurdish population of Halabja, killing around five thousand. This massacre was part of Operation Anfal, which saw the wide-scale destruction of villages and the massacre of tens of thousands. It was just one chapter […]

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